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One of the tools in 6-sigma, often compared to or put in parallel with the PDCA cycle of Lean.  It may sometimes be shown as a cycle with Control feeding back into Define as a method of Continuous Service Improvement; the outputs of the control monitoring feed into the definition of the next round.

Define - Identify the problem you are trying to resolve.  What is happening that you wish to prevent or to happen differently? What is not happening that you wish to promote?  What are the business goals you are seeking to achieve? What is the scope of your environment?  What is your circle of control?  Who are your stake holders?  How will know when you have achieved the desired outcome?

Measure - Baseline your current situation.  What are your metrics?  What are your current processes?  Where are you seeing defects?  What are the potential causes of the defects (both within and external to your scope)?  How can you measure changes to the outcomes of the processes?  How do you measure value and map the value stream of your processes?

Analyse - Identify and validate root causes (if you find there are more than one or two root causes and you cannot trace them back to a single root cause it may be helpful to look at where in the processes the root causes impact and adjust your scope so your project is dealing with one root cause that impacts in one area and other projects (running in parallel or in later iterations of DMAIC) address other root causes).  Where is there waste in the processes?  What are the root causes of waste?  How do dependencies within the processes, between processes and on things outside your scope and circle of control impact on the processes?  How do your stakeholders impact on the processes?

Improve - Identify a solution, implement and validate it.  How can you address the root cause(s)?  What changes are required to processes?  What changes are required to the resources employed (new staff, training, new equipment, new software &c)?  What changes are required to the physical environment (locations of staff and equipment, physical barriers, locations of Work-In-Progress stores, locations or raw materials stores, stock levels, locations of loading docks, additional work spaces &c)?  What is your timescale for implementation?  How will you carry out the implementation?  How will you avoid unnecessary disruption to the business during implementation?  How will you apply the measures and metrics defined in previous steps to know you have completed the improvement?  How will you know that the improvement has actually achieved what it set out to do?

Control - Sustain the improvement, document your proactive measures to avoid defects.  How will you know when things are going wrong?  What can your measure?  What do you need to measure? How often do you need to measure?  What are your likely failures?  What outside influences are likely to cause failures?  How will you avoid or contain failures?